The human brain is fascinating. It can figure out structures, relationships, and filling the gaps between the images and forming a structure out of it. From the field of psychology to Design, Gestalt theory of learning is implemented in various phases of design like User Experience Design, User Interface Design, Interaction Design, and different other areas. Gestalt theory is based upon the perception of a human brain. Let’s learn about the Gestalt principles of perception.
1. Law of Similarity
This principle states that similar objects on the interface are often considered as a part of the same group, by the human eye. It is achieved by using similar shapes, sizes, or colors.
It enables the user to figure the functionality behind the various interface elements.
2. Law of Proximity
The principle states, the objects placed closed on an interface are perceived to be related than those set far apart. It can even override the similarity created by using the same colors or sizes.
Sometimes placing the objects far apart, creates a sense of negative space, which is useful to distinguish the objects from the rest.
3. Law of Closure
The principle states the eye can fulfill the gaps and patterns, perceiving the object as a whole. E.g., a triangle drawn using broken lines or empty spaces will still be understood as a triangle. This explains the brain’s capability of filling in the missing information to create recognizable details.
4. Law of Figure-Ground
The principle states that we divide any visual into figure and ground. The figure refers to the object in the foreground with the focus, and the ground is the background of the visual. This law is widely used in creating logos for the brands.
5. Law of Common-Region
Following the footsteps of proximity, the law of common region explains that the objects that are placed in the same enclosed area or space, are perceived to be related. Like, creating cards on interfaces depicting unique user profiles.
6. Law of Continuity
The eye tends to follow the objects placed on a straight or curved line smoothly than at broken lines or angles. They are even perceived as connected and helps in the smooth navigation of a website or an application.
Real-life examples of Gestalt Principles.
- Birds of the same feather stock together. Birds flying together in a group are often perceived as the same breed. This explains the law of the common region.
- Google maps are a real-life example of the Law of Continuity. The eye follows the straight line and gets us easy to navigate the path.
- The panda in the WWF logo is strictly based upon the Law of Closure. As a result, our brain can visualize it as a panda, even if the gaps are not filled.
These crucial Gestalt grouping principles from the field of psychology have an impact on how we perceive things in our day to day lives. So, it gets essential to learn about them when we design for everyday things.